3.30.0b “My Father Works Until Now; and I Work”, that is, Jesus Works with God the Father; John 5:17.

2 Timothy 2:2

And the things that thou hast heard of me
Meaning the doctrines of the Gospel, the form of sound words. The Arabic version renders it, “the secrets, or mysteries that thou hast heard of me”; the mysteries of the grace of God, which he had often heard him discourse of, unfold and explain:

among many witnesses;
or by them; which some understand of the testimonies out of Moses, and the prophets, with which the apostle confirmed what he delivered; for the doctrines of justification, pardon of sin by Christ, were bore witness to by the prophets; though rather the many persons, who, with Timothy, heard the apostle preach, and were and would be sufficient witnesses for Timothy, on occasion, that what he preached and committed to others were the same he had heard and received from the Apostle Paul; unless reference should be had here to the time of imposition of hands upon him, when he received some ministerial gifts, or an increase of them; at which time the apostle might deliver to him the form of doctrine he was to preach, and that in the presence of the presbytery, who joined in the action, and so were witnesses of what was said to him:

the same commit thou to faithful men;
who not only have received the grace of God, and are true believers in Christ, but are men of great uprightness and integrity; who having the word of God, will speak it out boldly, and faithfully, and keep back nothing that is profitable, but declare the whole counsel of God, without any mixture or adulteration; for the Gospel being committed to their trust, they would become stewards, and of such it is required that they be faithful; and therefore this is mentioned as a necessary and requisite qualification in them; and not only so, but they must be such

who shall be able
or sufficient

to teach others also.
No man is sufficient for these things, of himself, but his sufficiency is of God; it is he who makes men able ministers of the word, by giving them gifts suitable for such work; so that they have a furniture in them, a treasure in their earthen vessels, an understanding of the sacred Scriptures, a gift of explaining them, and a faculty of speaking to edification; and so are apt to teach men, to their profit and advantage, The Ethiopic version renders it, “who are fit to teach the foolish”.

“And the things

you have heard me say

in the presence of many witnesses

entrust to reliable men

who will also

be qualified to teach others”

(2 Timothy 2:2).

Paul’s words to Timothy still apply to us today.

The churches need teachers who clearly

and fearlessly teach the Word of God.

With this Hope in mind,

The Bible Teachers Guide (BTG) series

was created.

The series includes both expositional

and topical studies,

resources to help teachers

preparing to lead small groups

or give sermons,

or simply for an individual’s devotional study.

We based each lesson

around the hermeneutical principle

that the original authors wrote

in a similar manner as we do today—

with the intention of being understood.

Each paragraph and chapter of Scripture

centers around one main thought

often called the Big Idea.

After finding the Big Idea

for each passage studied,

readers will discover the Big Question,

which will lead the small group

through the entire gamut of the text.

Alongside the Big Question,

notice the added hermeneutical questions

such as Observation Questions,

Interpretation Questions,


 Application Questions.

Observation questions

point out pivotal aspects of the text.

Interpretation questions

lead us into understanding what the text means

through looking at the context or other Scripture.

Application questions lead us

to life principles coming out of the text.

Not all questions will be used,

but they have been given

to help guide the teacher

in the preparation of his own lesson.

The purpose of this guide

is to make the preparation of the teacher easier,

as many commentaries and sermons

contributed to the development of each lesson.

After meditating on the Scripture text

and the lesson,

the small group leader

can follow the suggested teaching outline,


  1. Introduce the text and present the big question in the beginning.

  2. Allow several minutes for the members to search out answers from within the text, questions, or ways God spoke to them.

  3. Then facilitate the discussion of the findings and lead the group along through observation, interpretation, and application questions provided in the guide.

The leader may prefer to teach the lesson,

in part or in whole,

and then give application questions.

The leader can also choose to use

a “study group” method of facilitation,

where each member prepares beforehand

and shares teaching responsibility

(see Appendices 1 and 2).

Some leaders may find it most effective first

to corporately read each main section in a lesson,

then to follow with a brief discussion of the topic

and an application question.

Again, The Bible Teachers Guide

can be used as a manual to follow in teaching,

a resource to use in preparation for teaching,

or simply as an expositional devotional

to enrich one’s own study.

I pray that the Lord may Bless your study,

preparation, and teaching,

and that in all of it

you will find the fruit of the Holy Spirit

Abounding in your own life

and in the lives of those you instruct.

Copyright © 2015 Gregory Brown


The Truth of Christ’s Proper Divinity

may be proved from the Works Done by Him;

which are the Same that

are Done by the Father;

and in which Jesus

is a Coefficient Cause with God the Father;

and are done by him ομοιως,

in Like Manner as by the Father,

(John 5:17, 19)

John 5:17

But Jesus answered them
Being convened before them, and charged by them with the violation of the sabbath, he vindicated himself in the following manner, saying;

my Father worketh hitherto:
he who is my Father, not by creation, or adoption, but by nature, though he ended all his work on the seventh day, and rested from what he had done; yet he did not cease from working at all, but has continued to work ever since, on sabbath days, as well as on other days; in upholding and governing the world, in continuing the species of beings, and all creatures in their being; in providing for them, and in dispensing the bounties of his providence to them; in causing his sun to shine, and showers of rain to descend on the earth; and in taking care of, and protecting even the meanest of his creatures: and much more men; and still more his own people:

and I work;
or “also I work”; as the Syriac and Arabic version reads; i.e. in conjunction with him, as a co-efficient cause in the works of providence, in the government of the world, in upholding all things in it, in bearing up the pillars of the earth, in holding things together, and sustaining all creatures: or I also work in imitation of him, in doing good both to the bodies and souls of men on the sabbath day, being the Lord of it: I do but what my Father does, and therefore, as he is not to be blamed for his works on that day, as none will say he is, no more am I. So Philo the Jew says {b},

“God never ceases to work; but as it is the property of fire to burn,

and of snow to cool, so of God to work.”

And what most men call fortune, he calls the divine Logos, or word, to whom he ascribes all the affairs of Providence F3.


F2 Leg. Ailegor. l. 1. p. 41.
F3 Quod Deus sit Immutab. p. 318.

John 5:19

Then answered Jesus, and said unto them
They charged him with blasphemy for calling God his Father, and making himself equal to him: and his answer is so far from denying the thing, or observing any mistake, or misrepresentation of his words, that he allows the whole, and vindicates himself in so saying:

verily verily, I say unto you;
nothing is more certain; it may be depended on as truth; I who am truth itself, the “Amen”, and faithful witness, aver it with the greatest assurance:

the Son can do nothing of himself;
or he does do nothing of himself, nor will he do anything of himself; that is, he neither does, nor will, nor can do anything alone or separate from his Father, or in which he is not concerned; not anything without his knowledge and consent, or contrary to his will: he does everything in conjunction with him; with the same power, having the same will, being of the same nature, and equal to each other: for these words do not design any weakness in the Son, or want of power in him to do anything of himself; that is, by his own power: for he has by his word of power spoke all things out of nothing, and by the same upholds all things; he has himself bore the sins of his people, and by himself purged them away, and has raised himself from the dead; but they express his perfection; that he does nothing, and can do nothing of himself, in opposition to his Father, and in contradiction to his will: as Satan speaks of his own, and evil men alienated from God, act of themselves, and do that which is contrary to the nature and will of God; but the Son cannot do so, being of the same nature with God, and therefore never acts separate from him, or contrary to him, but always co-operates and acts with him, and therefore never to be blamed for what he does. The Syriac, Arabic, and Persic versions render it, “the Son cannot do anything of his own will”; so Nonnus; as separate from, or contrary to his Father’s will, but always in agreement with it, they being one in nature, and so in will and work. He does nothing therefore

but what he seeth the Father do;
not that he sees the Father actually do a work, and then he does one after him, as the creation of the world, the assumption of human nature, and redemption of man, or any particular miracle, as if upon observing one done, he did the like; but that he being brought up with him, and lying in his bosom, was privy to the whole plan of his works, and saw in his nature and infinite mind, and in his vast counsels, purposes, and designs, all that he was doing, or would do, and so did the same, or acted agreeably to them; and which still shows and proves their unity of nature, and perfect equality, since there was nothing in the Father’s mind but was known to the Son, seen, and observed, and acted up to by him: so Philo the Jew F5 says of the

“Father’s most ancient Son, whom he otherwise calls the firstborn; that being begotten, he imitates the Father, and seeing, or looking to his exemplars and archetypes, forms species;”

that is, being conversant with the original and eternal ideas of things in the divine mind, acts according to them, which he could not do if he was not of the same nature with, and equal to his Father. Moreover, the Son sees what the Father does by co-operating with him, and so does no other than what he sees the Father do, in conjunction with him: to which may be added, that the phrase shows, that the Son does nothing but in wisdom, and with knowledge; and that as the Father, so he does all things after the counsel of his will:

for whatsoever things he doth, these also doth the Son likewise;
the Son does the selfsame works as the Father does, such as the works of creation and providence, the government both of the church, and of the world; and he does these things in like manner, with the same power, and by the same authority, his Father does, and which proves him to be equal with him; the very thing the Jews understood him to have asserted, and which they charged him with: and this he strongly maintained. The Syriac version reads, “for the things which the Father does, the same also does the Son”; and the Persic version, “whatsoever God has done, the Son also does like unto it”.


F5 De Confus. Ling. p. 329.

Jesus Worked with God The Father in

The Creation

of all things out of nothing;

Jesus Worked with God The Father in

The Creation

of the Whole World and all things in it,

visible or invisible,

(John 1:2,3; Colossians 1:16)

John 1:2

The Same was in the Beginning with God.
This is a repetition of what is before said, and is made to show the importance of the truths before delivered; namely, the eternity of Christ, his distinct personality, and proper deity; and that the phrase, in the beginning, is to be joined to each of the above sentences; and so proves, not only his eternal existence, but his eternal existence with the Father, and also his eternal deity; and is also made to carry on the thread of the discourse, concerning the word, and not God the Father; and to express, not only his co-existence in nature, but his co-operation in the works of creation next mentioned.

John 1:3

All things were made by him
Which is a proof at once of all that is said before; as that he was in the beginning; and that he was with God the Father in the beginning; and that he was God; otherwise all things could not have been made by him, had either of these been untrue: which is to be understood, not of the new creation; for this would be a restraining “all” things to a “few” persons only; nor is it any where said, that all things are new made, but made; and it is false, that all were converted, that have been converted, by the ministry of Christ, as man: all men are not renewed, regenerated, nor reformed; and the greater part of those that were renewed, were renewed before Christ existed, as man; and therefore could not be renewed by him, as such: though indeed, could this sense be established, it would not answer the end for which it is coined; namely, to destroy the proof of Christ’s deity, and of his existence before his incarnation; for in all ages, from the beginning of the world, some have been renewed; and the new creation is a work of God, and of almighty power, equally with the old; for who can create spiritual light, infuse a principle of spiritual life, take away the heart of stone, and give an heart of flesh, or produce faith, but God? Regeneration is denied to be of man, and is always ascribed to God; nor would Christ’s being the author of the new creation, be any contradiction to his being the author of the old creation, which is intended here: by “all things”, are meant the heaven, and all its created inhabitants, the airy, starry, and third heavens, and the earth, and all therein, the sea, and every thing that is in that; and the word, or Son of God, is the efficient cause of all these, not a bare instrument of the formation of them; for the preposition by does not always denote an instrument, but sometimes an efficient, as in ( 1 Corinthians 1:9 ) ( 2 Corinthians 1:1 ) ( Galatians 1:1 ) and so here, though not to the exclusion of the Father, and of the Spirit:

and without him was not any thing made that was made:
in which may be observed the conjunct operation of the word, or Son, with the Father, and Spirit, in creation; and the extent of his concern in it to every thing that is made; for without him there was not one single thing in the whole compass of the creation made; and the limitation of it to things that are made; and so excludes the uncreated being, Father, Son, and Spirit; and sin also, which is not a principle made by God, and which has no efficient, but a deficient cause. So the Jews ascribe the creation of all things to the word. The Targumists attribute the creation of man, in particular, to the word of God: it is said in ( Genesis 1:27 ) . “God created man in his own image”: the Jerusalem Targum of it is,

“and the word of the Lord created man in his likeness.”

And ( Genesis 3:22 ) “and the Lord God said, behold the man is become as one of us”, the same Targum paraphrases thus;

“and the word of the Lord God said, behold the man whom I have created, is the only one in the world.”

Also in the same writings, the creation of all things in general is ascribed to the word: the passage in (Deuteronomy 33:27 ) “the eternal God is thy refuge, and underneath are the everlasting arms”, is paraphrased by Onkelos,

“the eternal God is an habitation, by whose word the world was made.”

In ( Isaiah 48:13 ) it is said, “mine hand also hath laid the foundation of the earth”. The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziah on it is,

“yea, by my word I have founded the earth:”

which agrees with what is said in ( Hebrews 11:3 ) ( 2 Peter 3:7 2 Peter 3:5 ) , and the same says Philo the Jew, who not only calls him the archetype, and exemplar of the world, but the power that made it: he often ascribes the creation of the heavens, and the earth unto him, and likewise the creation of man after whose image, he says, he was made F20. The Ethiopic version adds, at the end of this verse, “and also that which is made is for himself”.


F20 De Mundi Opificio, p. 4, 5, 31, 32. De Alleg. l. 1. p. 44. De Sacrificiis Abel & Cain, p. 131. De Profugis, p. 464. & de Monarch. p. 823.

Colossians 1:16

For by him were all things created
This is a reason proving Christ to be before all creatures, to be the common Parent of them, and to have the government over them, since he is the Creator of them. The creation of all things, by him, is not to be understood of the new creation, for whenever that is spoken of, the word “new” is generally used, or what is equivalent to it, or some clause or phrase added, which determines the sense, and is not the case here: besides, all things that are in heaven are said to be created here: which, to say nothing of the sun, moon, and stars, which are not capable subjects of the new creation, to restrain them to angels, cannot be true of them; for as for those who were once in heaven, but kept not their first estate, and quitted their habitation, these find no place there any more; they never were, nor will be renewed and restored by Christ; and as for the good angels, since they never sinned, they stand in no need of renovation. Moreover, all things that are on earth are also said to be created by him, and are, but not anew: for to confine these only to men, all men are not renewed in the spirit of their minds; all have not faith, nor a good hope through grace, nor love to God and Christ, the greater part of the world lies in open wickedness; and all that profess religion are not new creatures, these are a chosen generation, and a peculiar people: wherefore these words must be understood, not metaphorically, but literally; in which sense all things are created by Christ, not by him as an instrument, but as the efficient cause; for the preposition “by” does not always signify the former; but sometimes the latter; see ( 1 Corinthians 1:9 ) ( Galatians 1:1 ) ; nor to the exclusion of the Father and Spirit, who, with the Son, were jointly concerned in the creating of all things out of nothing: and these “all things” can only refer to the things that are made: eternal things can never be said to be created; this is a contradiction in terms; the Father is not created by him, nor he himself as the Son of God, nor the Spirit; but everything that is made is created by him: hence it follows, that he himself is no creature, otherwise he must create himself, which also is a contradiction, since every creature is made by him; and consequently he must be God, for he that made and built all things is God. These are divided as to the subject of them, or place where they are, into things

that are in heaven, and that are in earth.
The things that are in heaven, are the things that are in the airy and starry heavens, and in the heaven of heavens. The things in the airy heavens, the fowls thereof, were on the fifth day created by him; and the things in the starry heaven, the sun, moon, and stars, were on the fourth day ordained by him; and the inhabitants of the third heaven, the angels, were made by him, ( Hebrews 1:7 ) ; and, as the Jewish writersF9 say, on the second day of the creation, though some say on the fifth. The earth comprehends the whole terraqueous globe, consisting of land and sea; and the things in it are all that are in the seas, the fishes and other things in it; and all that are in the bowels of the earth, as well as on the surface of it, all metals and minerals, all plants, herbs, and trees, every beast of the forest, the cattle on a thousand hills, the fowls on the mountains, and the wild beasts of the field, and all human creatures. Again, these all things are, as to the quality of them, distributed into

visible and invisible,
both in heaven and in earth: the visible things in heaven are the fowls that fly in the airy heaven, the sun, and moon, and stars in the starry heaven, and the bodies of those saints that have been either translated, or raised, in the third heaven; the visible things in the earth are all creatures, animate and inanimate, rational and irrational, all bodies, all corporeal and material beings: the invisible things in earth are not only those that are in the innermost parts of it, but the spirits or souls of men; and those in heaven are not the invisible God, Father, Son, and Spirit, but the angels, who are incorporeal and immaterial spirits, and so invisible: and which,

whether [they be] thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers,
are all made by him; by these some understand civil magistrates among men, and the various degrees and orders of them. By “thrones” they think kings, or monarchs, are meant, who sit on thrones; and by “dominions”, little petty kings, or lords, dukes, and earls; and by “principalities”, governors of provinces and cities; and by “powers”, interior magistrates; and indeed, political governors are sometimes called dominions, dignities, principalities, and powers; and there are different orders of them, the king as supreme, and governors under him; see ( Jude 1:8 ) ( Titus 3:1 ) ( 1 Peter 2:13 1 Peter 2:14 ) . But since these seem rather to be said of the invisible things in heaven, and to be an explanation of them, angels may rather be thought to be intended; and are so called, not as denoting different orders and degrees among them, which some have rashly ventured to describe, but because of the use that God makes of them in the government of the world, and the executions of the various affairs of Providence relating to particular persons and kingdoms; though these several names are not so much such as the apostle chose to call them by, as what they were called by others; the three latter are indeed elsewhere used by himself, (Ephesians 1:21 ) ( 3:10 ) ( Colossians 2:10 ) ; but not the former, “thrones”, which yet are used by Jewish writers, and given to angels. Thus, in a book of theirs, which they esteem very ancient, and ascribe to the patriarch Abraham, it is said F11,

“there is no angel in which the name Jehovah is not found, which is everywhere, as the soul is in every member; wherefore men ought to allow Jehovah to reign in all the members, (Nyork lkbw) , “and in all the thrones”, and in all the angels, and in every member of men.”

And elsewhere, speaking of the garments of God,

“by these (say they F12) (Nyyork “hbq arb) , “the holy blessed God created the thrones”, and the angels, and the living creatures, and the “seraphim”, and the heavens, and the earth, and all that he created.”

And the thrones in ( Daniel 7:9 ) ; are interpreted F13, of

“the superior princes, (Myynxwr Mykalml) , “the spiritual angels”, who sit first in the kingdom; and they are called in the words of the Rabbins, “the throne of glory”; for so is the way of kings, that their princes sit before them, everyone on his throne, according to their dignity.”

Now the apostle’s sense is, that the angels, the invisible inhabitants of the upper world, are all created by Christ, let them be called by what names they will, that the Jews, or the false teachers, or any sort of heretics of those times thought fit to give them, whether they called them thrones or dominions And so the Arabic version, rather interpreting than translating the words, renders them thus, “whether you say thrones, or whether you mention dominions, or whether you understand princes, or whether you say powers”; speak of them under what title or appellation you please, they are all the creatures of the Son of God. The apostle seems to have in view, and to oppose some notions of some heretics of his time, the followers of Simon Magus, who held, that the angels were created by his Helena; or, as others, by what they call “Ennea”, and that these angels created the world, and are to be worshipped; but he here affirms, that

all things were created by him,
by Christ, even all the angels; and therefore he, and not they, are to be worshipped, a notion he afterwards takes notice of in the following chapter: and as all things are affirmed to be created by him, which demonstrates the dignity and deity of his person, so likewise

for him;
that is, for his pleasure, that he may take delight and complacency in them, and in his own perfections displayed by them; and for his service and use, as the angels, to worship him and minister to him and for others, he sends them to: elect men are made to serve and glorify him with their bodies and spirits, which are his; and even the non-elect are made to subserve his mediatorial kingdom and interest; yea, the whole world is built and kept in being purely on his account, until he has finished the great affair of the salvation of his people, in the application of it to each of them, as he has completed the impetration of it; and then he will dissolve the heavens, and burn up the earth and all the works that are therein: all are made for his glory, and that end is, and will be answered by them in one way or another.


F9 Targum Jon. in Gen. i. 26. Bereshit Rabba, fol. 1. 1. & 3. 3. Menass. ben Israel, Conciliator in Gen. Qu. 12.
F11 Sepher Jetzira, p. 17, Ed. Rittangel.
F12 Tikkune Zohar in ib. p. 127, 128. & Zohar in Exod. fol. 18. 2. & in Lev. fol. 39. 1. & 47. 2.
F13 Abarbinel in Dan. fol. 45. 4. & 46. 4.

The Making of the Worlds,

the Heaven, and the Earth,

are particularly Ascribed

to the Word and Son of God;

and He that Built all things is God,

(Hebrews 11:3, 1:10, 3:4)

Hebrews 11:3

Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the
word of God
The celestial world, with its inhabitants, the angels; the starry and ethereal worlds, with all that is in them, the sun, moon, stars, and fowls of the air; the terrestrial world, with all upon it, men, beasts and the watery world, the sea, and all that is therein: perhaps some respect may be had to the distinction of worlds among the Jews; (See Gill on Hebrews 1:2), though the apostle can scarce be thought to have any regard to their extravagant notions of vast numbers of worlds being created: they often speak of three hundred and ten worlds, in all which, they say, there are heavens, earth, stars, planets F6; and sometimes of eighteen thousand F7; but these notions are rightly charged by Philo F8 with ignorance and folly. However, as many worlds as there are, they are made “by the Word of God”; by Christ, the essential Word of God, to whom the creation of all things is ascribed in ( John 1:1-3 ) . And this agrees with the sentiments of the Jews, who ascribe the creation of all things to the Word of God, as do the Targumists F9, and Philo the Jew F11. And these are “framed” by the Word, in a very beautiful and convenient order; the heavens before the earth; things less perfect, before those that were more so in the visible world, or terraqueous globe; and things for men, before men, for whom they were; and it is by divine revelation and faith that men form right notions of the creation, and of the author of it, and particularly of the origin of it, as follows:

so that things which are seen:
as the heaven, earth, and sea, and in which the invisible things of God, the perfections of his nature, are discerned:

were not made of things which do appear;
they were not made from pre-existent matter, but out of nothing, out of which the rude and undigested chaos was formed; and from that invisible mass, covered with darkness, were all visible things brought into a beautiful order; and all from secret and hidden ideas in the divine minds; and this also is the faith of the Jews, that the creation of all things is (Nyam) , “out of nothing” F12. There seems to be an allusion to the word (arb) , used for creation, which signifies to make appear a thing unseen; and is rendered in the Septuagint version by (deiknumi) , ( Numbers 16:30 ) and (katadeiknumi) , ( Isaiah 40:26 ) ( 41:20 ) to show, or make appear; and thus God created, or made to appear, the heavens and earth, which before were not in being, and unseen, ( Genesis 1:1 Genesis 1:2 ) and created to make, as in ( Genesis 2:3 ) that is, made them to appear, that he might put them into the form and order they now are.


F6 Misn. Oketzim, c. 3. sect. 12. Targum Jon. in Exod. xxviii. 30. Kettoreth Hassamim in Targum Jon. in Gen. fol. 4. 4. Lex. Cabel. p. 60, 61.
F7 T. Bab. Avoda Zara, fol. 3. 2. Yalkut, par. 2. fol. 50. 4.
F8 De Opificio, p. 39.
F9 Targum Oak. in Deut. xxxiii. 27. & Ben Uzziel in Isa. xlviii. 13.
F11 De Opificio, p. 4. & Leg. Alleg. l. 1. p. 44.
F12 Tzeror Hammor, fol. 1. 1. Kettoreth Hassamim in Targ. Jon in Gen. fol. 5. 1, 2.

Hebrews 1:10

And thou Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of
the earth
The person here addressed, as the Lord or Jehovah, and as the Maker of the heavens and the earth, is the same with the Son spoken to, and of, before; for the words are a continuation of the speech to him, though they are taken from another psalm, from ( Psalms 102:25-27 ) . The phrase, “thou, Lord” is taken from ( Psalms 102:12 ) and is the same with, “O my God”, ( Psalms 102:24 ) and whereas it is there said, “of old”, and here, in the beginning, the sense is the same; and agreeably to the Septuagint, and the apostle, Jarchi interprets it by (hlyxtm) , “at”, or “from the beginning”; and so the Targum paraphrases it, (zywrv Nm) , “from the beginning”, that the creatures were created that in the beginning of the creation, which is the apostle’s meaning; and shows the eternity of Christ, the Lord, the Creator of the earth, who must exist before the foundation of the world; and confutes the notion of the eternity of the world: and the rounding of it shows that the earth is the lower part of the creation; and denotes the stability of it; and points out the wisdom of the Creator in laying such a foundation; and proves the deity of Christ, by whom that, and all things in it, were made:

the heavens are the works of thine hands:
there are more heavens than one; there are the airy heaven, and the starry heaven, and the heaven of heavens, the third heaven; and they were created the beginning, as the earth was, ( Genesis 1:1 ) and are the immediate work of Christ; they were made by himself, not by the means of angels, who were not in being till these were made; nor by any intermediate help, which he could not have, and which he did not need: the phrase is expressive of the power of Christ in making the upper parts of the creation, and of his wisdom in garnishing them, in which there is a wonderful display of his glory; and the whole serves to set forth the dignity and excellency of his person.

Hebrews 3:4

For every house is built by some man
Or by some one; for a house does not build itself: this is true of houses properly taken, or improperly, as nations, tribes, families, and kindred, of the whole church in general, of particular congregations, and of individual believers; the greatest saints, even apostles and prophets, such an one as Moses, are built by and upon Christ; their persons are built on him; they receive all their gifts for edification from him, and their success is owing to him; though they are to be esteemed of in their proper places: the apostle’s design is to bring down the high esteem the Jews had of Moses, that they might rightly value Christ.

But he that built all things is God;
Christ has built all things, and therefore he is God, and must be infinitely above Moses; for this is not to be understood of God and of the creation of the world, and of all things in it by him; but of Christ, and of his building the church, and of his ordering and managing of that, and all affairs relating to it; such as the constitution of it, settling the worship of God, and the ordinances in it, the redemption and salvation of the members of it, and its rule and government; all which prove him to be God, and above Moses.

The Work of Providence,

The Government of the World,

and the Disposing of all things in it,

Christ is Jointly Concerned in

with the Father;

“My Father Works Until Now;

and I Work”,

that is,



(John 5:17).

The Body of Doctrinal Divinity,

page 232, by John Gill.



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